What is the Infield Fly Rule in Baseball?

HomeBlogsChris Sloan's blogWhat is the Infield Fly Rule in Baseball?
HomeBlogsChris Sloan's blogWhat is the Infield Fly Rule in Baseball?
What is the Infield Fly Rule in Baseball?
Chris Sloan

Baseball is a sport filled with rules, some of which can be quite complex. One such rule is the infield fly rule, which is designed to prevent fielders from making easy double plays by intentionally dropping a ball. While the rule is meant to ensure fairness and protect the offense, it has also sparked controversy and confusion over the years.

So, what exactly is the infield fly rule, and how does it work? In this blog post, we'll provide a comprehensive overview of this important rule in baseball. We'll explain how the rule functions, provide examples of it in action, and answer frequently asked questions about its application. We'll also explore some of the criticisms and controversies surrounding the rule and examine its historical origins.

coors field, baseball stadium, denver

How the infield fly works

Now that we've established what the infield fly rule is, let's take a closer look at how it actually works. The infield fly rule is a type of rule designed to protect the offensive team from being put at a disadvantage by an unfair defensive play. Specifically, it is meant to prevent a situation where a fielder intentionally drops a pop-up or fly ball in order to turn a double play. By calling the infield fly, the umpire is effectively treating the situation as if the ball was caught, even if it is dropped. This allows the batter to be called out and the runners to remain on their respective bases and avoid easy force play outs.

In order for the infield fly rule to be called, certain conditions must be met. First, the ball hit must be hit into the infield (defined as the area within the base paths, not including the pitcher's mound or not a foul ball). Second, there must be less than two outs in the inning. Third, there must be runners on first and second base, or first, second, and third bases. Finally, the umpire must determine that the ball is an "ordinary effort" fly ball, meaning that it could be caught by an infielder with ordinary effort. If all of these conditions are met, the umpire will signal the infield fly by extending his arm straight up in the air.

It's worth noting that the infield fly rule exists to prevent defensive players from gaining an unfair advantage, but it can also sometimes be to the disadvantage of the offensive team. For example, if the batter hits a shallow fly ball and the infielder chooses not to catch it in order to try for a force play at second base, the umpire cannot call an infield fly. In this situation, if the ball is dropped, the runners are at risk of being doubled off. So, while the infield fly rule is meant to protect the offense, it is not always the best option in every situation.

rangers, ballpark, baseball

Examples of the Infield Fly Rule in Action

To better understand the infield fly rule, let's look at some examples of how it's applied in actual games. The infield fly rule is typically invoked in situations where there are runners on first and second or first, second, and third base with less than two outs. In these scenarios, if a batter hits a fair fly ball that can be caught by an infielder with "ordinary effort", the umpire will call the batter out even if the ball is dropped.

For instance, imagine a scenario where a batter hits a shallow fly ball to the second baseman and there are runners on first and second base. If the umpire determines that the second baseman could have easily caught the ball with "ordinary effort", they will call the batter out even if the ball is dropped. The runners on base will also be required to hold their positions, as the play is treated as if the batter had hit a regular fly ball.

The infield fly rule can also come into play in less common scenarios, such as a situation where a runner is on first base and the batter hits a high pop-up that stays within the infield. If the umpire determines that the ball could have been caught by an infielder with "ordinary effort", they will call the batter out and the runner on first base will be required to hold their position.

These examples show how the infield fly rule can impact a game and prevent baserunners from advancing in situations where they may have been able to without the rule. The rule is in place to protect the defense from being put at a disadvantage by the offense intentionally dropping a pop-up to create a force play, while also ensuring that the baserunners do not unfairly benefit from such a play.

pnc park, pittsburgh, pennsylvania

Criticisms and Controversies of the Infield Fair Fly Ball Rule

Like any rule, the infield fly rule has its share of criticisms and controversies. One of the most common criticisms of the infield fly rule is that it takes away an advantage that the defense has worked hard to earn. Without the rule, a defense could intentionally drop a pop-up to force multiple runners out, potentially changing the course of the game. However, opponents of this argument point out that without the rule, the game would devolve into a series of intentional drops, making the game less exciting and unpredictable.

Another criticism of the rule is that it places a significant burden on umpires to determine what constitutes an "ordinary effort" from an infielder. Some argue that the rule is too subjective and leads to inconsistent enforcement. However, supporters of the rule counter that it is precisely the umpire's job to make subjective calls and that the rule is necessary to ensure fair play.

One of the most controversial calls in recent memory occurred during the 2012 NL Wild Card Game between the Atlanta Braves and the St. Louis Cardinals. In the bottom of the eighth inning, the Braves had runners on first and second with one out when Andrelton Simmons hit a pop-up into shallow left field. Cardinals' shortstop Pete Kozma moved under the ball but suddenly backed away, allowing the ball to drop. The umpire called the infield fly rule, which meant that Simmons was out and the runners were forced to stay at their bases. Braves fans were incensed, throwing trash onto the field and delaying the game for 19 minutes. Critics of the call argue that the ball was not in the infield and that Kozma did not make an effort to catch the ball, while supporters maintain that the umpire made the correct call.

Despite the criticisms and controversies, the infield fly rule remains an important part of the game of baseball. It helps to ensure fair play and prevent strategic manipulations of the game. While it may not always be popular, it is an integral part of the sport's history and future.

Frequently Asked Questions

The rule is a somewhat complex rule, and many baseball fans and players have questions about how it works in practice. Here are some of the most frequently asked questions about the infield fly rule:

What happens if you drop an infield fly?

If an infielder intentionally drops an infield fly ball, it is still considered a fair ball, and the batter is out. However, if the infielder drops the ball due to an error or lack of ordinary effort, the ball is treated as any other fly ball and the runners can advance at their own risk.

Can an infielder drop a ball on purpose?

An infielder is not allowed to drop a ball on purpose to try to get a double play. If an umpire determines that an infielder intentionally dropped the ball, the batter will be called safe and all runners will advance to the next base.

When can you run on an infield fly?

Runners can advance on an infield fly ball after it is caught, or if it falls untouched and is not a result of an infielder's intentional drop they can run at their own risk. If the batted ball is caught, the runners must tag up before attempting to advance.

What happens if an infield fly is not called?

If an umpire fails to call an infield fly when it should have been called, the play continues as normal. The rule does not require an umpire to make the call, but rather it is a tool to protect the offense from the defense's attempt to get an easy double play.

When did the infield fly rule begin in Major League Baseball?

The rule was first implemented in 1895, but it has undergone several revisions since then. The current version of the rule has been in place since 1939.

Can a Foul Ball fall Under the Infield Fly Rules?

No, since the ball is not on the field of play, a foul ball pop-out can not be called as part of the infield fly situation, it must be a fair batted ball.


In conclusion, the infield fly rule is an important rule in baseball that is designed to prevent the defense from taking advantage of an easy double play opportunity. It can be a complex rule to understand, but it is essential for both players and fans to have a basic understanding of how it works in order to fully appreciate the game.

While there have been some controversies and criticisms of the rule over the years, it remains an important part of the game of baseball. Whether you're a seasoned player or a casual fan, taking the time to learn about the infield fly rule can help you better understand the strategy and nuances of America's favorite pastime.

Blog categories: 

About Chris Sloan

Chris Sloan is a former baseball league commissioner and travel baseball coach who has made significant contributions to the sport. In 2018, he founded selectbaseballteams.com, a website that helps parents find youth and travel baseball teams in their local areas. Since its launch, the website has experienced impressive growth, offering a wealth of resources including teams, news, tournaments, and organizations. Chris's unwavering passion for baseball and his innovative approach to connecting parents with quality baseball programs have earned him a respected reputation in the baseball community, solidifying his legacy as a leading figure in the world of youth and travel baseball.

latest comments

There are 0 comments on "What is the Infield Fly Rule in Baseball?"




post a comment

(If you're a human, don't change the following field)
Your first name.
(If you're a human, don't change the following field)
Your first name.
(If you're a human, don't change the following field)
Your first name.
This question is for testing whether or not you are a human visitor and to prevent automated spam submissions.
Enter the characters shown in the image.