How Baseball Is Made

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HomeBlogsChris Sloan's blogHow Baseball Is Made
How Baseball Is Made
Chris Sloan

Baseball continues to be one of the most adored American sports in existence. For many children, throwing a baseball around and playing pitch and catch are among their most treasured childhood memories. The most important component of the game is baseball. It's what keeps the action going, the major collectible for spectators in the stands, and it also needs to be well-engineered to give the players the best and most reliable experience. Have you ever thought about how baseball is made?

If you've ever used a baseball to play, you are aware of how distinct it is from other kinds of balls. It's not blasted full of air, to start. Despite being relatively firm, it will bounce and hop across the ground when struck by a bat.

In theory, you can play baseball with any ball you happen to have to lie around. Whatever you can find can be utilized for a quick pickup game, whether it's a tennis ball, whiffle ball, or softball. However, there is science involved in the design and production of the baseballs used in professional baseball.

Making baseballs involves a slightly more difficult process than simply placing feathers into a leather cover.

  1. Materials required or How a Baseball is Made

The baseball used in baseball is very different from the balls used in other professional sports. There is no air within how a baseball is made, in contrast to basketballs and footballs. Because they are solid, baseballs resemble golf balls the most closely of any sporting ball, although even these two balls have quite distinct interiors.

  1. Cork ball in a baseball

A little ball of cork that is covered in a thin layer of rubber makes up the baseball's inner core. The "pill" is what we refer to as. The pill inside a baseball must be around half an ounce in weight and about four inches in circumference. This kind of core was created roughly a century ago and is still the foundation of contemporary baseball.

The baseball's pill or core is next firmly wrapped with several layers of yarn. This yarn is made up of layers of wool and poly/cotton that have been tightly twisted by machines.

  1. Use of Wool

A total of 121 yards of four-ply blue/gray woolen yarn make up the top yarn layer. The second layer is made up of about 45 yards of white, three-ply woolen yarn. The next layer returns to the blue/gray woolen yard, and the top layer is made up of 150 yards of white yarn with a polyester-cotton foundation.

This wool is crucial to the construction of a baseball since it enables the ball to be slightly more flexible while yet being sturdy and long-lasting. If a baseball were entirely solid, utilizing it in a game would result in a lot of cracked and shattered balls. 

By utilizing wool, you enable the interior structure of the baseballs to absorb some of the shocks and enable the ball to quickly regain its natural shape. The final layer of the ball, which is made of poly/cotton, is intended to increase the ball's strength and lower its danger of tearing.

  1. The ball's exterior 

There is still one more component that has to be added before the ball is prepared for use during play.

The ball's exterior is made of a full-grain, white leather cowhide that has been alum-tanned to give it the traditional baseball appearance. Before the leather is put into the interior yarn ball, rubber cement is applied to the ball. The leather would then be meticulously hand-stitched, encircling each ball with precisely 216 red stitches.

It's critical that every baseball produced to be used in Major League Baseball contests adhere to the standards established by the MLB. Each ball needs to be a specific weight, a specific circumference, and the right number of stitches. A baseball cannot be used if any of these numbers don't fall within the proper range.

  1. Manufacturing Process of How a Baseball is Made

A baseball is made by covering a small rubber sphere, about the size of a cherry, with various layers of material (rubber, fabric, and cowhide). Three different techniques are used to assemble these components around the tiny sphere: cowhide is stitched, the fabric is coiled, and rubber is molded. To preserve uniform size, shape, and quality, the materials are placed around the sphere under carefully monitored conditions.

  1. Molding Rubber

A sphere of rubberized cork measuring 5/3 of an inch and 0.39cm in diameter is made from two hemispheric black rubber shells that are each roughly 5/3 of an inch (.39 centimeter) thick. Red rubber gaskets are used to seal the two tiny gaps that divide these shells.

The black rubber encasement is then molded to a layer of red rubber that is around 3/32 of an inch or 0.24 centimeter thick. The entire "pill" is then shaped into a perfect circle with a circumference of nearly 4-1/8 inches, weighing roughly 7/8 of an ounce (24.80 grams) (10.48 centimeters).

A tiny layer of cement is then placed on the surface of the pill after it has been formed. At the beginning of the first winding operation, this layer holds the wool yarn firmly in place on the pill.

  1. Fabric Winding

The pill is wrapped in wool yarn that has been kept in a regulated fabric temperature and humidity environment. To remove "soft patches" and produce a uniform surface, automated winding machines keep a constant level of very increased pressure

To ensure that official size criteria have been satisfied, the ball is weighed and measured using the computer after each stage in the winding process. 

When a baseball is dissected, the wool yarn is wrapped so tightly that it resembles thread. 

The baseball is wrapped in three layers of wool

1st layer is made of 121 yards (110.6 meters) of four-ply gray yarn.

2nd layer is made of 45 yards (41.13 meters) of three-ply white yarn. 

3rd layer is made of 53 yards (48.44 meters) of three-ply gray yarn.

To safeguard the wool yarn and keep it in place, a layer of fine poly/cotton finishing yarn of 150 yards (137.1 meters) is wrapped around the ball. After trimming off any extra fabric, the wound ball is soaked in an adhesive solution to prepare it for the attachment of the external cowhide covering.

  1. Sewing hide

Two figure-8 motifs are carved into the leather covering. Half of the wound ball is covered by each motif. The cowhide wraps are moistened to make them more flexible before being stitched to the wound ball. The same adhesive that was used to seal the wound ball is also applied to the interiors of the coverings.

The wound ball is secured with staples before the two figure-8 coverings are manually stitched together using 88 inches (223.52 cm) of waxed red thread. The sewing technique involves 108 stitches, the beginning and last of which are fully concealed. A baseball takes about 13 to 14 minutes to stitch by hand.

The staples are extracted and the ball is examined after the coverings have been sewn together. The elevated stitches are then leveled by putting the ball in a rolling machine for 15 seconds. After that, the baseballs are weighed, measured, and evaluated based on appearance. Baseballs bearing the manufacturer's logo and league identification are considered acceptable.

  1. Quality Control in How a Baseball is Made

A baseball that does not adhere to the rules may provide your team an unfair edge or disadvantage. These kinds of regulations are in place to guarantee that the game is played as fairly as it can be without taking into account the abilities of the players. Therefore, the process of testing baseballs, rather than the actual process of making one, is one of the most intriguing questions surrounding baseball manufacturing. 

To guarantee that every ball is suitable for use at the highest level, the MLB has put in place highly stringent quality control procedures. The Coefficient of Restitution, or COR, is what they refer to. Each batch of baseballs that leaves the manufacturer has a sample submitted for the COR test, which entails:

Discharging the ball from an air cannon at a wooden wall at a distance of 2.43 meters at a speed of 25.9 meters per second. The ball must rebound with a margin of error of +/- 3.2% and at 54.6% of the initial velocity to comply with the rules;

It must be capable of withstanding 200 hits from a force equivalent to 29.51kg while maintaining its shape. It also needs to be pressed between two anvils without distorting by more than 0.2 cm.

This meticulous process guarantees that only baseballs of the greatest quality will be approved and available for the MLB's players to take the field.


There was no set size or weight for the first baseballs because they were produced by the players themselves. They would be nothing more than stitched leather pouches that had been filled with string or feathers. They didn't last very long until they were soggy and misshapen.

Today, approximately 80% of baseballs used today in the world are produced in China. However, Rawlings knows how a baseball is made, and manufactures the official baseballs for Major League Baseball in Costa Rica pursuant to an exclusive agreement. Throughout a season, Major League Baseball teams consume close to one million baseballs annually.

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About Chris Sloan

Chris Sloan is a former baseball league commissioner and travel baseball coach who has made significant contributions to the sport. In 2018, he founded selectbaseballteams.com, a website that helps parents find youth and travel baseball teams in their local areas. Since its launch, the website has experienced impressive growth, offering a wealth of resources including teams, news, tournaments, and organizations. Chris's unwavering passion for baseball and his innovative approach to connecting parents with quality baseball programs have earned him a respected reputation in the baseball community, solidifying his legacy as a leading figure in the world of youth and travel baseball.

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